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British Protected States

British Protected States were a status held by several of the former British territories within the British Empire. A birth in a British Protected State would have resulted in the nationality status of "British Protected Person" (commonly referred to as a BPP). This status would have been passed down the MALE LINE ONLY to children of such BPP's.

Whether this status was kept will depend on the Independence Arrangements (and Constitution) of the former British territory from which it stemmed. A case-by-case study must be undertaken before an assessment can be made. It is still possible in the modern to:

  • claim the BPP status; OR
  • convert the BPP status into full British Nationality.

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British Nationality Assessment

During the early and middle 20th century, Britain ruled over nearly a third of the world's peoples. One form of this was through her collection of British Protected States. As a general rule, a person born in a British Protected State became a British Protected Person (commonly called a BPP). This status could be lost upon Independence of the territory, but there were several circumstances where this BPP status was maintained. If it was maintained, there are also circumstances where this status can be converted into full British Nationality. 

Click here for more information on how British Nationality can be gained.

For more information on how British Nationality could be gained through birth in a British Protected State with a UK-born grandparent, watch this short video by Philip Gamble:

At various times, the United Kingdom administered the following Protected States:

Click here for more information on the status of a British Protected State.


Birth (and what was could loosely be described as Citizenship) in a British Protectorate would probably have given rise to Citizenship of the UK and Colonies (known as CUKC and gave rise to what was the old form of what is now a "British Passport") or as a "British Protected Person" (BPPs). At the point when the Colony became independent, these citizens either took on nationality of the newly formed independent country, or remained as CUKCs or BPPs. 

The British Nationality Act 1981 came into force on 1 January 1983, and divided Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs) into three categories:

1. British Citizens

CUKCs with the Right of Abode in the United Kingdom and Islands (i.e. the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) by virtue of a close connection therewith (e.g. by birth or descent from a person born in the United Kingdom and Islands) became British Citizens.

2. British Dependent Territories Citizens

CUKCs with a close connection with one of the United Kingdom's Dependent Territories became British Dependent Territories citizens (BDTCs). It was possible for a person to acquire British citizenship and BDTC at the same time. For example, a person born in Bermuda before 1983 with a parent born in the United Kingdom would have acquired both nationalities.

3. British Overseas Citizens

All other CUKCs became British Overseas Citizens.

  On 18.02.1965 it became part of the Gambia, a newly formed Independent country.