British Protectorates was a status held by several of the former British territories within the British Empire. A birth in a British Protectorate would have resulted in the nationality status of "British Protected Person" (commonly referred to as a BPP). This status would have been passed down the MALE LINE ONLY to children of such BPP's.
Whether this status was kept will depend on the Independence Arrangements (and Constitution) of the former British territory from which it stemmed. A case-by-case study must be undertaken before an assessment can be made. It is still possible in the modern to:
- claim the BPP status; OR
- convert the BPP status into full British Nationality.
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MORE INFORMATION ABOUT BRITISH PROTECTION
During the early and middle 20th century, Britain ruled over nearly a third of the world's peoples. One form of this was through her collection of British Protectorates.
As a general rule, a person born in a British Protectorate became a British Protected Person (commonly called a BPP). This status could be lost upon Independence of the territory, and there were circumstances where this BPP status was maintained. If it was maintained, there are also circumstances where this status can be converted into full British Nationality. Click here for more information on the status of a British Protected Person (based on birth in a British Protectorate).
For more information on how British Nationality could be gained through birth in a British Protectorate with a UK-born grandparent, watch this short video by Philip Gamble:
At various times, the United Kingdom administered these Protectorates:
- Gambia Protectorate
- Northern Territories Protectorate
- Swaziland Protectorate
- Kenya Protectorate (Jubaland, Kismayu and Port Durnford)
- Kenya Protectorate (Lamu, Patta and Strip)
- Nigeria Protectorate(s)
- Sierra Leone Protectorate
- Aden Protectorates
- Maldives Protectorate
- Zanzibar Protectorate
- Bechuanaland (now Botswana)
- Nyasaland (now Malawi)
- Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)
- Northern Somaliland
- Solomon Islands
Click here for more information on the status of a British Protected Person (based on birth in a British Protectorate).
HOW CAN UK NATIONALITY ARISE?
Birth (and what was could loosely be described as Citizenship) in a British Protectorate would probably have given rise to Citizenship of the UK and Colonies (known as CUKC and gave rise to what was the old form of what is now a "British Passport") or as a "British Protected Person" (BPPs). At the point when the territory became independent, these citizens either took on nationality of the newly formed independent country, or remained as CUKCs or BPPs.
The British Nationality Act 1981 came into force on 1 January 1983, and divided Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs) into three categories:
1. British Citizens
CUKCs with the Right of Abode in the United Kingdom and Islands (i.e. the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) by virtue of a close connection therewith (e.g. by birth or descent from a person born in the United Kingdom and Islands) became British Citizens.
2. British Dependent Territories Citizens
CUKCs with a close connection with one of the United Kingdom's Dependent Territories became British Dependent Territories citizens (BDTCs). It was possible for a person to acquire British citizenship and BDTC at the same time. For example, a person born in Bermuda before 1983 with a parent born in the United Kingdom would have acquired both nationalities.
3. British Overseas Citizens
All other CUKCs became British Overseas Citizens (BOC's).
On 18.02.1965 it became part of the Gambia, a newly formed Independent country.